Sunday, 18 November 2012


Implementation & Evaluation

 To create a ‘PERFECT ADVERTISEMENT’, not just the message, but also how well the message is communicated should be well thought of. There are many appeals and execution styles that can be adopted by the advertisers to complete the creation of the advertisement. But the right combination of appeal and style should be chosen to create the desired effect on the customers.

To measure this desired effect once the advertisement is made, the client and other promoters can use certain tools to evaluate the creative work of their agencies.

Appeals & Execution Styles

The advertising appeal refers to the approach used to attract the attention of consumers and/or to influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause. An advertising appeal can also be viewed as “something that moves people, speaks to their wants or needs, and excites their interest.”
The creative execution style is the way a particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to the consumer.

Advertising Appeals

Hundreds of advertising appeals are used as the basis for advertising messages. But these appeals can be broadly divided into two broad categories –

1   Informational/Rational appeal- This kind of appeal focuses on the consumer’s practical, functional, or utilitarian need for the product or service and emphasizes features of a product or service and/or the benefits or reasons for owning or using a particular brand on the consumer’s rational. The objective is to persuade the target audience to buy the brand because it is the best available or does a better job of meeting consumers’ needs by appealing rationally.

Some of the rational appeals are feature appeal, competitive advantage appeal, favorable price appeals, news appeal, etc.
Below is the table for examples:

Examples of Rational Appeals

2 Emotional Appeal -Emotional appeals relate to the customers’ social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a product or service. Many consumers’ motives for their purchase decisions are emotional, and their feelings about a brand can be more important than knowledge of its features or attributes. Advertisers for many products and services view rational, information-based appeals as dull.

Examples of emotional appeals are self-esteem, safety, fear factor, pleasure, ambition, comfort, acceptance, achievement and rejection.
For example, Mountain Dew advertised by appealing to the feeling of achievement. McDonald’s changed its advertising strategy recently and is putting more emotion in its commercials to evoke a feel-good connection with consumers.
A reason to use the emotionally appealing advertisements is to influence customer’s interpretations of the usage of a product. This can be done by using Transformational advertisements. A transformational ad is defined as “one which associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement.
                The “reach out and touch someone” campaign used by AT&T for many years to encourage consumers to keep in touch with family and friends by phone is an example of the successful use of transformational advertising.

Combining Rational & Emotional appeal: Generally the question is not whether to use emotional or rational appeal but how to combine both of them to create the desired effect as consumers use both rational and emotional motives while purchasing the product.

Advertising Execution

Creative execution is the way an advertising appeal is presented. While it is obviously important for an ad to have a meaningful appeal or message to communicate to the consumer, the manner in which the ad is executed is also important.
An advertising message can be presented in numerous ways:
  • ·         Straight sell or factual message
  • ·         Animation
  • ·         Scientific/technical evidence
  • ·         Personality symbol
  • ·         Demonstration
  • ·         Fantasy
  • ·         Comparison
  • ·         Dramatization
  • ·         Testimonial
  • ·         Humor
  • ·         Slice of life
  • ·         Combinations

Components of Advertising

Print Ads
Headlines – the text in the leading position of the Ad
Body Copy – the main text portion of a Print Ad
Visual Elements – Illustrations Such As Drawings or Photos
Layout - How Elements Are Blended Into a Finished Ad

TV Ads
Videos & Audios using jingles, voice-over, music, needle drop, etc.
Once, the story board and the animation is finalised, the advertisement is moved to production phase which involves three stages:
Preproduction stage – all the work and activities that occur before the actual shooting/ recording of the commercial.
Production - the period during which the commercial is filmed or videotaped and recorded.
Post production - activities and work that occur after the commercial has been filmed and recorded.

 Tasks at each step

Guidelines for Evaluation & Approval of the creative work

The evaluation of the advertisements is mostly subjective in nature though sometimes the evaluators use quantitative information.
Some of the subjective cues that are used to evaluate an advertisement are:
  • ·         Is the creative approach consistent with the brand’s marketing and advertising objectives?
  • ·         Is the creative approach consistent with the creative strategy and objectives? Does it communicate what it is supposed to?
  • ·         Is the creative approach appropriate for the target audience?
  • ·         Does the creative approach communicate a clear and convincing message to the customer?
  • ·         Does the creative execution keep from overwhelming the message?
  • ·         Is the creative approach appropriate for the media environment in which it is likely to be seen?
  • ·         Is the ad truthful and tasteful?

Media Strategy

Media Planning and Strategy

Before we mention anything about media planning and strategy, it is important for the readers to understand the terminologies involved in this exercise. Some of these are mentioned below:    

Media - The various categories of delivery systems, including broadcast and print media
Broadcast Media - Either radio or television network or local station broadcasts
Print Media - Publications such as newspapers and magazines
Media Planning - A series of decisions involving the delivery of messages to audiences
Media Objectives - Goals to be attained by the media strategy and program
Media Strategy - Decisions on how the media objectives can be attained
Media Vehicle - The specific message carrier, such as the Washington Post or 60 Minutes
Coverage - The potential audience that might receive the message through the vehicle
Reach - The actual number of individual audience members reached at least once by the vehicle in a given period of time
Frequency - The number of times the receiver is exposed to vehicle in a specific time period

There are several activities involved in developing a media plan. each activity has its own purpose and a set of tasks to complete that activity. These activities are shown in the figure below.

Developing the media plan

Market Analysis

The key questions to be addressed in this stage are:

  • To whom shall we advertise (who is the target market)? 
  • What internal and external factors may influence the media plan? 
  • Where and when should we focus our efforts?

To whom shall we advertise?

There are many indicators developed by different agencies but generally the sources of data used in calculating these indicators are questioned by experts. Also, sometimes the data used to obtain these indicators might not be sufficient or accurate and thus might yield to misleading results. Therefore, tmost of the agencies use the index number.

The index number is the best indicator of the potential of a market. This number is derived from the formula

An index number over 100 means use of the product is proportionately greater in that segment than in one that is average (100) or less than 100.

What internal and external factors may influence the media plan?

Internal factors:
  • The size of the media budget 
  • Managerial and administrative capabilities
  • The organization of the agency 
External factors
  • The economy (the rising costs of media)
  • Changes in technology (the availability of new media) 
  • Competitive factors

Where to promote?

Several indices that are used to determine where to promote (geographically) are as follows:

1. Survey of buying power index - is based on a number of factors including population, effective buying income, and total retail sales in the area. Each of these factors is individually weighted to drive a buying power index that charts the potential of a particular metro area, county, or city. The resulting index gives media planners an insight into the relative value of that market.

2. Brand development index (BDI) - helps marketers factor the rate of product usage by geographic area into the decision process. It compares the percentage of the brand’s total country sales in a given market
area with the percentage of the total population in the market to determine the sales
potential for that brand in that market area.

3. Category development index (CDI) - provides information on the potential for development of the total product category rather than specific brands.

This index is generally used in conjunction with BDI.

Media objectives

Create awareness in the target market through the following:

  • Use broadcast media to provide coverage of 80 percent of the target market over a six-month period
  • Reach 60 percent of the target audience at least three times over the same six month period
  • Concentrate heaviest advertising in winter and spring, with lighter emphasis in summer and fall

Developing and implementing media strategies

Having determined what is to be accomplished, in the following stage of developing and implementing media strategies media planners consider how to achieve these objectives. several criteria are considered while developing media plans:

  • The media mix
  • Target market coverage 
  • Geographic coverage
  • Scheduling
  • Reach vs frequency
  • Creative aspect and mood
  • Flexibility
  • Budget considerations

Testing Process

Testing Process For measuring effectiveness of promotional programs

Testing takes place throughout different points during any campaign. The figure below shows the different testing points.
Concept Testing
This test is conducted very early in the campaign development process in order to explore the targeted consumer’s response to a potential ad or campaign or have the consumer evaluate advertising alternatives. Positioning statements, copy, headlines, and/or illustrations may all be under scrutiny. The material to be evaluated may be just a headline or a rough sketch of the ad. The colors used, typeface, package designs, and even point-of-purchase materials may be evaluated. The Figure below shows the concept testing methodology:

One way of doing the concept testing is by using Focus Groups. But the usage of focus groups has its advantages and disadvantages:
         Results easily obtained, observable, immediate
         Multiple issues can be examined
         In-depth feedback is obtained
         Results not quantifiable
         Sample size too small
         Group influence may bias responses
         Some members may dominate discussion
         Participants become instant “experts”
         Members may not represent target market
         Results may be given too much weight

Rough Art, Copy, and Commercial Testing
Rough tests must indicate how the finished commercial would perform. Some studies have demonstrated that these testing methods are reliable and the results typically correlate well with the finished ad. Most of the tests conducted at the rough stage involve lab settings, although some on-air field tests are also available. Popular tests include comprehension and reaction tests and consumer juries. In short both the method is explained in the diagram below:

During the process of rough testing there are certain terminologies used which one should keep in mind while dealing with this. The diagram below gives a detailed explanation of the required terminology:

Pretesting of Finished Ads
Pretesting finished ads is one of the more commonly employed studies among marketing researchers and their agencies. At this stage, a finished advertisement or commercials used; since it has not been presented to the market, changes can still be made. Print methods include portfolio tests, analyses of readability, and dummy advertising vehicles. Broadcast tests include theater tests and on-air tests. Both print and broadcast may use physiological measures.
 A number of methods for pretesting finished print ads are available. The most common of these methods are portfolio tests, readability tests, and dummy advertising vehicles. The diagram below gives a brief description of the same:

 A variety of methods for pretesting broadcast ads are available. The most popular are theater tests, on-air tests, and physiological measures.
Theater Test: In theater tests participants are invited by telephone, mall intercepts, and/or tickets in the mail to view pilots of proposed TV programs. In some instances, the show is actually being tested, but more commonly a standard program is used so audience responses can be compared with normative responses established by previous viewers. It measures changes in product preferences. It may also measure Interest in and reaction to the commercial, reaction from an adjective checklist, recall of various aspects included Interest in the brand presented Continuous (frame-by-frame) reactions.
On-Air Tests: Some of the firms conducting theater tests also insert the commercials into actual TV programs in certain test markets. Typically, the commercials are in finished form, although the testing of ads earlier in the developmental process is becoming more common. This is referred to as an on-air test and often includes single-source ad research. On-air testing techniques offer all the advantages of field methodologies, as well as all the disadvantages. Further, there are negative aspects to the specific measures taken through the on-air systems. One concern is associated with day-after recall scores, the primary measure used in these tests.
Physiological Measures:  A less common method of pretesting finished commercials involves a laboratory setting in which physiological responses are measured. These measures indicate the receiver’s involuntary response to the ad, theoretically eliminating biases associated with the voluntary measures reviewed to this point. (Involuntary responses are those over which the individual has no control, such as heartbeat and reflexes.) Physiological measures used to test both print and broadcast ads include pupil dilation, galvanic skin response, eye tracking, and brain waves.

1.   Pupil dilation: Research in pupillometrics is designed to measure dilation and constriction of the pupils of the eyes in response to stimuli. Dilation is associated with action; constriction involves the body’s conservation of energy. Pupil dilation suggests a stronger interest in (or preference for) an ad or implies arousal or attention-getting capabilities. Because of high costs and some methodological problems, the use of pupillometrics has waned over the past decade. But it can be useful in evaluating certain aspects of advertising.

2.   Galvanic skin response: Also known as electrodermal response, GSR measures the skin’s resistance or conductance to a small amount of current passed between two electrodes. Response to a stimulus activates sweat glands, which in turn increases the conductance of the electrical current. Thus, GSR/EDR activity might reflect a reaction to advertising.
3.   Eye tracking: A methodology that is more commonly employed is eye tracking; in which viewers are asked to view an ad while a sensor aims a beam of infrared light at the eye. The beam follows the movement of the eye and shows the exact spot on which the viewer is focusing. The continuous reading of responses demonstrates which elements of the ad are attracting attention, how long the viewer is focusing on them, and the sequence in which they are being viewed. Eye tracking can identify strengths and weaknesses in an ad.
4.   Brain waves: Electroencephalographic (EEG) measures can be taken from the skull to determine electrical frequencies in the brain. Alpha activity refers to the degree of brain activation. People are in an alpha state when they are inactive, resting, or sleeping. The theory is that a person in an alpha state is less likely to be processing information (recall correlates negatively with alpha levels) and that attention and processing require moving from this state. Hemispheric lateralization distinguishes between alpha activity in the left and right sides of the brain. It has been hypothesized that the right side of the brain processes visual stimuli and the left processes verbal stimuli.

Market Testing of Ads
This is referred to as the post-test of ads so as to find out how the tests are performing in the market.
A variety of print posttests are available, including inquiry tests, recognition tests, and recall tests.
Inquiry Tests:  Used in both consumer and business-to-business market testing, inquiry tests are designed to measure advertising effectiveness on the basis of inquiries generated from ads appearing in various print media, often referred to as “bingo cards.” The inquiry may take the form of the number of coupons returned, phone calls generated, or direct inquiries through reader cards. More complex methods of measuring effectiveness through inquiries may involve (1) running the ad in successive issues of the same medium, (2) running split-run tests, in which variations of the ad appear in different copies of the same newspaper or magazine, and/or (3) running the same ad in different media. Each of these methods yields information on different aspects of the strategy. The first measures the cumulative effects of the campaign; the second examines specific elements of the ad or variations on it. The final method measures the effectiveness of the medium rather than the ad itself.
Recognition Tests: Perhaps the most common posttest of print ads is the recognition method.
Recall Tests: There are several tests to measure recall of print ads. They are similar to those discussed in the section on pretesting broadcast ads in that they attempt to measure recall of specific ads.
A variety of methods exist for posttesting broadcast commercials. The most common provide a combination of day after recall tests, persuasion measures, and diagnostics. Test marketing and tracking studies, including single-source methods, are also employed.

Measuring Promotion

Need for measuring Effectiveness of the Promotional Program

Promotion of any product/company is carried out with a distinct objective in mind. Although companies plan a great promotion strategy, they tend to neglect the most crucial element of the same. They forget to measure the achievement that is achieved through the strategy. Every company should remember that measuring the effectiveness of the promotional program is a critical element in the promotional planning process. Research allows the marketing manager to evaluate the performance of specific program elements and provides input into the next period’s situation analysis. It is a necessary ingredient to a continuing planning process, yet it is often not carried out. It is important to determine how well the communications program is working and to measure this performance against some standards. 
Reasons to measure effectiveness:

·         Avoid costly mistakes
·         Evaluate alternative strategies
·         Increase efficiency in general
·         Determine if objectives are achieved

Some of the critics have also pointed out some reasons for not to measure the effectiveness. They are as follows:

·         Cost of measurement
·         Research problems
·         Disagreement on what to test
·         Objections of creative
·         Time

All the above arguments possess weak logic and can be negated easily. The cost of measurement could be negated when compared to the loss that is caused if the advertisement is unsuccessful. Similarly the research problem can be negated by having a presence of a proper plan for the evaluation and measurement. The disagreement can also be taken care by the same.
After the above discussion we can come to a conclusion that the measurement will provide us with extra benefits only. Hence, adopting the process would merge batter with the company’s strategy.
In order to understand the complete mechanism we will try to answer the complete mechanism using the framework of:

·         What
·         When
·         Where
·         How

What to measure:
Marketers need to determine how the communications process is being affected by the different promotion programs. Other decisions made in the promotional planning process must also be evaluated. But Primarily the components of the communication plan is to be evaluated. The components are:

·         Source Factors
·         Message variables
·         Media strategies
·         Budget decisions

Where to measure:
Test Measures can be classified on the basis of when they are conducted.

·         Pre-testing
·         Post-testing

The testing methods can be further classified as:

Where to measure:
In addition to when to test the managers need to take decision about the place where the test should take place. Ideally the test is taken at two places:

·         Laboratory
·         Field

An important trade-off between the control the test offers and the realism it offers is made. In the first place control is high while the latter provides high realism.
How to measure:
The first three testing factors were general and designed to establish a basic understanding of the overall process as well as some key terms. At this stage it is important to know how these test are conducted. In order to conduct these tests two primary requirements are :

·         Testing guidelines
·         Appropriate tests

Twenty-one of the largest U.S. ad agencies have endorsed a set of principles aimed at “improving the research used in preparing and testing ads, providing a better creative product for clients, and controlling the cost of TV commercials.”14 This set of nine principles, called PACT (Positioning Advertising Copy Testing), defines copy testing as research “which is undertaken when a decision is to be made about whether advertising should run in the marketplace. Whether this stage utilizes a single test or a combination of tests, its purpose is to aid in the judgment of specific advertising executions.”15 The nine principles of good copy testing are shown in Figure below:


Saturday, 17 November 2012

Objectives Comparision

Sales versus Communications Objectives

What are Objectives?

.Although the terms goals and objectives have related meanings, they have important differences within the context of business management. Goals are broad, abstract targets that are often difficult to measure. However, objectives are much more specific. They rely on clearly defined targets, often using numbers and dates to set limits and deadlines. For example, a non-profit organization with a goal of attracting new donors may have a related objective of issuing 10,000 fliers and making 1,000 phone calls by the end of the month

Communications Objectives

A business communications team, or any type of work team with a communications element, is likely to only have objectives that fall within its area of expertise. For example, a public relations department may have an objective of issuing press releases addressing lawsuits within 24 hours. Likewise, a marketing department may be tasked with producing three new ad campaigns for less than $1 million each that bring customer awareness of a new product, as measured in surveys, to 75 percent.

Sales Objectives

Sales objectives rely on statistical data to set target sales levels over time. Sales objectives don't necessarily need to refer to the number of goods a business sells. Instead they could refer to a revenue target, a number of new customers or a particular number of sales for each member of a sale staff. A computer manufacturer may set a sales objective of 200,000 new laptops in the fiscal quarter. However, unless this objective includes the stipulation that all 200,000 models are sold for the full wholesale price, a sales team could reduce prices to increase sales to retailers and meet the objective without benefiting the company.

Selective Perception

Selective Perception Process in Marketing

Exposure describes what occurs when a person is initially exposed to the external stimulus of a product or brand marketing. It occurs when the sensory receptors of a consumer are engaged by product or brand cues through sight, sound, smell, taste and texture.

In consumer information processing, attention occurs when a person lingers and gives mental processing capacity to the external stimulus from a product or brand. Selective perception is when a consumer pays attention to messages that are consistent with her attitudes, beliefs and needs. When a product is inconsistent with these factors, the consumer will withdraw attention.

A person assigns a meaning to the sensory stimulus from a product or brand marketing. Comprehension is aided by expectations and familiarity. Store-brand marketing frequently capitalizes on the interpretation stage when product packaging design contains logos, colors and other elements that are similar to national brands that consumers are generally more familiar with.

The conclusion of the consumer perception process is the retention stage. This is marked by the storage of product or brand information in short-term and long-term memory. The marketer's goal is to provide positive stimuli in the proceeding stages that translate into consumers storing the information about the product or brand into long-term memory

Decision Making

Consumer Decision Making Process

A consumer goes through several stages before purchasing a product or service.

Step 1 - Need is an important determinant that helps in buying of products and services. Need is a crucial catalyst which influences the purchase decision of individuals.
A person who purchases a bottle of cold drink or a mineral water bottle initiates the process by identifying his/her need that is thirst. However, this is simple need and hence, in these cases information collection and evaluation of alternatives may not be carried out. But both these steps are important during the purchase of expensive products/services by individuals such as mobile phones, laptops, cars etc.

Step 2 – After the individual recognizes that he/ she needs a particular product/service, he will then try to gather more related information to make an informed decision.
An individual can acquire the required information through any of the sources as given below:
  • Personal Sources – Discussions with friends, family members, co-workers and other acquaintances.
  • Commercial sources –Look for external sources such as advertisements, sales people,  Packaging content of a particular product, Displays (Props, Mannequins etc.)
  • Public sources – Print sources - Newspaper, Magazine and other sources like radio and billboards
  • Experiential sources - Individual’s own experience, prior handling of a particular product (Tim would definitely purchase a Dell laptop again if he had already used one)

Step 3 - The next step is to evaluate the various alternatives available in the market. An individual tries to pick up the best option available after gathering relevant information that suits his need, taste and pocket!

Step 4 - After completing all the four stages as given above, customer finally makes the purchase decision

Step 5 - The purchase of product is then followed by post purchase evaluation. This basically refers to the individual’s analysis of satisfaction in terms of whether the product was beneficial to him or not, whether the product fulfilled his need or not. 

Creative Strategy

Advertisements are called creative. The people who develop ads (TV commercials or print ads) are known as creative types. Determining what message an advertisement will communicate is known as creative strategy and determining how creative strategy will be executed is often known as a creative tactic.

Advertising creativity is the ability to create solutions to different problems in communicating a message. It is about generating new and unique ideas that can be used to develop these solutions.

There are different schools of thought regarding advertising creativity. Some say it is only creative and thus effective if the product being advertised, sells. Others say that creativity lies in the originality and the artistic value created by the creative types. The later strongly favor that sales should not be a criterion to judge creativity.

Many experts believe that advertising is a process and success follows only if an organized approach is followed in developing creatives. James Webb Young, a former creative vice president at the J. Walter Thompson agency said, “The production of ideas is just as definite a process as the production of Fords; the production of ideas, too, runs an assembly line; in this production the mind follows an operative technique which can be learned and controlled; and that its effective use is just as much a matter of practice in the technique as in the effective use of any tool.”

Young also defined a model to explain the creative process. Young’s model of creative process contains five steps:
  • Immersion: Getting information through research and immersing yourself in the problem
  • Digestion: Working over the information and grappling with it in one’s mind to digest the problem
  • Incubation: Stop the analysis, put the problem out of your conscious mind and let the subconscious mind work on it.
  • Illumination: The Eureka moment; when you get a potential solution to the problem at hand
  • Reality or verification: Extensive study of the idea thought for the extent to which it solves the problem and giving it a practical shape

Young’s model is similar to Graham Wallas’ four step approach:
  • Preparation: Gathering information needed to solve the problem through research and study
  • Incubation: Setting problems aside to let the ideas develop
  • Illumination: Seeing the solution to the problem
  • Verification: Refining the idea, polishing it and then evaluating it for its appropriateness

Inputs to creative process

Preparation, Incubation and Illumination

Before starting working on the creative, the creative types look for any background information available about the client’s product or service, the target market, the competition, etc. Some of the common sources of obtaining information used by creative types are: 
  • Reading (books, trade magazines, articles, research reports, etc.)
  • Questioning the client and the people directly involved with the product such as engineers, designers, salesmen and consumers
  • Getting hold of few conversations about the product/service; visiting stores, malls, and other public places to listen to what people are talking about the same
  • Using the product or service; your knowledge of any product is proportional to your use of the product
The advertising agencies also provide their employees with sufficient relevant information or sources to obtain such information to perform their job efficiently. This information may be general or product specific and are classified as:
  • General preplanning input – includes books, periodicals, journals, trade publications, magazines, etc.
  • Product specific preplanning input – qualitative and quantitative studies, problem detection studies, focused group discussions, ethnographic studies

Verification and Revision

This phase in the creative process (might also be termed as a pretesting phase) is characterized by evaluation and hence the revision of ideas developed by the creative types for a product/service. The techniques used for evaluation are- focus group discussions, message communication studies, viewer reaction profiles, etc. Any inappropriate idea is scrapped and the ones that need revision are refined and given a more pragmatic shape. The creative is thus finalized and ready for launch in media.

Advertising Campaigns

An advertising campaign is a set of advertisemnets aimed at communicating a series of messages to the existing as well as potential customers. In other words, it is a set of interrelated and co-ordinated marketing communication activities that center on a single theme or idea that appears in different media across a specified time period (Source: Advertsing and Promotion: An IMC perspective, Belch and Belch). In order to ensure that same idea is communicated through all the advertisements, the campaign must have a strong theme for the whole creative process (refer the figure along for some examples). The theme of an advertsng campaign is known as a campaign theme. 

Some latest advertising campaigns

Company or Brand
Thank you Mom
Just do it
Take the stage
Coca Cola
Open happiness
Kuch meetha ho jaye
Jo mera hai vo tera hai

Finding major selling ideas

Figure 1: Use of Unique sell
A major selling idea is the strongest thing that a company says about its product/service. It is a company’s major weapon (in form of an appeal) against its competition in the contemporary marketing warfare. It is extremely challenging for a creative type to figure out a major selling idea and then put it across efficiently through the advertisements. Following approaches can guide the creative team in finding out the major selling proposition for a product/service.
  • Using a unique selling proposition (refer print ad in figure 1 for example)
  • Creating a brand image
  •  Finding the inherent drama
  • Positioning (refer print ad in figure 2 for example)

Figure 2: Use of positioning by Volkswagen for Polo